AFMC Primer on Population Health

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Part 1 - Theory: Thinking About Health

Chapter 1 Concepts of Health and Illness

Introduction: the widening scope of medicine
Illness, Sickness, and Disease
Disease or Syndrome?
Disease as a Process: Natural History and Clinical Course
Definitions of Health
Public and Population Health
Self-test questions
References

Chapter 2 Determinants of Health and Health Inequities

Health inequalities
Basic concepts: causes, risk factors and determinants
Risk factors
Determinants of Health
Health Behaviours
Self-test questions
References

Chapter 3 Cultural Competence and Communication

Cultural awareness, sensitivity, and safety
The relevance of culture for health
Categories of culture
Indigenous people’s health in Canada
Self-test questions
References

Chapter 4: Basic Concepts in Prevention, Surveillance, and Health Promotion

Natural history of disease
The stages of prevention
Implementing prevention, health protection and health promotion
Self-test questions
References

Part 2 - Methods: Studying Health

Chapter 5 Assessing Evidence and Information

Assessing information and evidence
Appraising scientific evidence: qualitative versus quantitative research
Qualitative research
Quantitative research
Research designs
Experimental (or interventional) studies
Observational studies
Measures of risk: attributable risk and number needed to treat
Sampling and chance error in studies
Chance
Bias
Confounding
The hierarchy of evidence
The final step: applying the study results to your patients
Self-test questions
References

Chapter 6 Methods: Measuring Health

The scope of health measures
Individual measures and population-level indicators
Prevalence and incidence
Mortality rates
Health measurement scales
Reliability and validity of health measures
Interpreting tests on individuals
Establishing cut-points: what is a normal value?
Self-test questions
References

Chapter 7: Applications of Research Methods in Surveillance and Programme Evaluation

Surveillance
Role of Clinicians in Public Health Surveillance
Types of surveillance
Patterns of disease development in a population: the epidemic curve
Health services research
Self-test questions
References

Part 3 - Practice: Improving Health

Chapter 8 Illness Prevention and Health Promotion

Approaches to health improvement
Intervening in individuals or in populations?
The goal of prevention
The Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care
Prevention in clinical practice
Office systems for improving prevention in practice
Changing behaviour
Harm reduction
Health promotion
Who needs the intervention?
What should the intervention target?
How can health be achieved?
Self-test questions
References

Chapter 9 Screening

Goal of screening
Issues in deciding whether or not to screen
Some misconceptions about screening
Details of policies
Ethical issues particular to screening
Criteria for introducing a screening test
Self-test questions
References

Regulating the providers

Public versus private financing of health care

Remuneration of providers

Chapter 10 Identifying Hazards and Communicating Risks

Identifying environmental problems
Reducing risk
Occupational hazards
Risk Management
Risk Communication
Self-test questions
References

Chapter 11 Infectious Disease Control

Detection and control of outbreaks
Transmission of infectious disease
Modes and control of transmission
Problems associated with medical care
Notifiable (or reportable) disease
Self-test questions
References

Chapter 12 The Organization of Health Services in Canada

Elements of a health care system
Societal goals and values
The Canada Health Act
The regulating body
Sources of finance
Controlling Costs
Health care service provision
Ensuring equity
First Nations, Inuit and Métis (Indigenous) health services
The Aging Population
Information and dissemination of information in health care
Some specific types of services
Self-test questions
References

Chapter 13 Assessing and Improving Health Care Quality

Patient safety
Adverse drug events
Quality in health care
Approaches to managing quality
Investigating quality
Improving quality of care
Self-test questions
References

Health and safety at work

Workers’ compensation

Public health services in Canada

Development of the public health system

Public Health Responsibilities in Canada

Responsibility for Promoting Health

Public health law

Chapter 14 Decision-making: Policies and Ethics in Health Care and Public Health

Public Policies
Influences on health policy-making
The policy cycle
The budget cycle
Welfare economics and cost benefit analysis
Public health ethics
Public health ethics and clinical practice
Self-test questions
References